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Conservation Development -S2n-18-12-1

Conservation Development S2n18-12-1Conservation Development

Essay on Ontological Reasoning for Conservation between Nature and Culture


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Deuker, C.; 2018; “Conservation Development. Essay on Ontological Reasoning for Conservation between Nature and Culture”; ScienceSocial.net; ISSN 2366-0104; S2n18-12-01; https://sciencesocial.net/


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1     References  4

2     Abstract 7

3     On ‘nature’ and ‘culture’ 8

4     Market impact to ‘nature’ 9

5     Debating Conservation  10

6     What to do?  13

7     Next steps  17

1       References

Bollnow, O. F.; 1960; “Der erlebte Raum”; http://www.otto-friedrich-bollnow.de/doc/ErlebterRaumB.pdf; 05.10.5

Deuker, C.; 2016; “Taming Savage Design. Methodological Implications on Wildlife-Biological Design Planning”; ScienceSocial.net; 2366-0104; S2n16/4/1; https://sciencesocial.net

Dilworth, D. A.; 1987; “Introduction: Nishida’s Critique of the Religious Consciouness”; 1-46; In: Nishida, K.;”Last writings: Nothingness and the Religious Worldview”; Honolulu; University of Hawaii Press; 0824810406

Faucheux, S.; Froger, G.; Noel, J.-F.; 1995; “What Forms of Rationality for Sustainable Development?”; 169-209; The Journal of Socio-Economics; 24/1;

Faustmann, M.; 1849; “Berechnung des Werthes, welchen Waldboden, sowie noch nicht haubare Holzbestände für die Waldwirthschaft besitzen”; 441-455; Allgemeine Forst- Jagdzeitung; 25/

Hampicke, U.; 1992; “Ökologische Ökonomie. Individuum und Natur in der Neoklassik”; Opladen; Westdeutscher Verlag; 3-531-12196-0

Hobbes, T.; Waas, L.; Hobbes, T.; Hobbes, T.; 2017; “Vom Bürger : dritte Abteilung der Elemente der Philosophie ; Vom Menschen : zweite Abteilung der Elemente der Philosophie”; Hamburg; Felix Meiner Verlag; 9783787328055 (hd. bd. alk. paper) 378732805X (hd. bd. alk. paper)

Holland, J. H.; 2006; “Studying Complex Adaptive Systems”; 1-8; Journal of Systems Science and Complexity; 1559-7067; 19/1; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11424-006-0001-z

Homann, K.; 1990; “Wettbewerb und Moral”; 34-56; Jahrbuch für christliche Sozialwissenschaften; 31/1;

Latka, T.; 2003; “Topisches Sozialsystem. Die Einführung der japanischen Lehre vom Ort in die Systemtheorie und deren Konsequenzen für eine Theorie sozialer Systeme”; Heidelberg; Verlag für Systemische Forschung; 3-89670321-8

Lefebvre, H.; 1991; “The Production of Space”; Malden, Oxford, Victoria; Blackwell Publishing; 0-631-18177-6

Lovelock, J. E.; 1992; “Gaia. Die Erde ist ein Lebewesen”; Bern, München, Wien; Scherz Verlag; 3 502 17420 2

Nishida, K.; 1987a; “Concerning My Logic”; 125-126; In: Nishida, K.;”Last Writings”; Honolulu; University of Hawaii Press; 0824810406

Nishida, K.; 1987b; “Last writings : nothingness and the religious worldview”; Honolulu; University of Hawaii Press; 0824810406

Nishida, K.; 1989; “Über das Gute. Eine Philosophie der Reinen Erfahrung”; Frankfurt a.M.; Insel Verlag; 3-458-16018-3

Nishida, K.; 1999; “Logik des Ortes. Der Anfang der modernen Philosophie in Japan”; Darmstadt; Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft; 3-534-12703-5

Nishida, K.; 2012; “Ontology of production. 3 essays Nishida Kitaro”; Durham, NC; Duke University Press; 9780822351641 (cloth alk. paper), 9780822351801 (pbk. alk. paper)

Perman, R.; Ma, Y.; McGilvray, J.; Common, M.; 1996; “Natural Resource and Environmental Economics”; Harlow, London, New York, Boston, San Francisco, Toronto, Sydney, Tokyo, Singapore, Hong Kong, Seoul, Taipei, New Delhi, Cape Town, Madrid, Mexico City, Amsterdam, Munich, Paris, Milan; Pearson, Addison Wesely; 0-273-65559-0

Rousseau, J. J.; 1762; “Über den Gesellschaftsvertrag. Oder: Grundlage des öffentlichen Rechts”; Essen; Phaidon Verlag; 3-88851-215-8

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2       Abstract

The topic of this essay is an adequate logic for biological conservation or nature protection. The first question is the definition of nature and its connection to culture. The interconnectivity of the nature – culture amalgam leads to the next problematic issue of valuation for biological conservation. Classical approaches in decision-making theory are based on a substantial rationality with linear dynamics for optimization processes. Market integration for nature protection is only efficient subject to this fundamental logic.

Going beyond classical optimization processes with a procedural rationality is advantageous in nonlinear dynamic systems, but still needs a precise system environment separation. In biological thinking, with the definition of a habitat as well as in sociological with the nature – culture amalgam, system boundaries are not only open, but as well vague and fractal.

A fundamental change to a ‘Logic of Place’ [s. Nishida, K.; 1999] could be beneficial for developing the idea of biological conservation with a topological impact that holds new relations to the system – environment definition. The ‘Logic of Place’ as a shift towards a predicative logic [s. Dilworth, D. A.; 1987] implies a new focus of observation. Not a single habitat as a spatial expression of space is fruitful to be observed, but all places with its topological impact.

3       On ‘nature’ and ‘culture’

If you ask an inhabitant of the EU to describe the jungle, you will get a detailed vivid picture resembling the presentation of ‘Lion King’ or ‘Tarzan’ movies. Confronted with the same task, members of indigenous peoples of rain forests will give a description very different from that.

This change in awareness is also possible in respect to the same area and society. Before the romanticism and the impact of industrial revolution to societies in Europe, the Alps were known as a hostile place. Myths of placed demons in the mountains were vivid and the struggle or better the rural capture for men and God the dominating plot. Today summit crosses are ‘point of interests’ and preferred pictures for ego marketing in social media.

Even without the historic perspective the ambivalence of connotations to ‘nature’ are striking. We think about the forest as a fundamental aspect of nature in contrast to urban areas with industrial and postmodern production. In fact, most forests are part of an agriculture productive area and cultivated over a long time. The idea of the meaning ‘sustainability’ comes from economical reasoning towards forestry [s. Faustmann, M.; 1849] showing this ambivalent connotation between ‘nature’ and ‘culture’.

The word ‘culture’ itself comes from the Latin expression ‘cultura’ and means tilled place. The idea of a man made ‘culture’ is only possible based on ‘nature’ and is developing the later as well as man itself. No doubt, a field is still nature, but it is different from not cultivated areas. The distinction of ‘nature’ and ‘culture’ is driven by the way we deal with space and leads to an ontological debate of ‘experienced space’ (Der erlebte Raum) [s. Bollnow, O. F.; 1960] or the ‘production of space’ [s. Lefebvre, H.; 1991] and a ‘Logic of Place’ [Nishida, K.; 1999].

From this ambivalence of ‘nature’ and ‘culture’ we see that ‘culture’ is always based on ‘nature’ and ‘nature’ is always addressed in terms of ‘culture’.

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